Post audit: The auditing evaluation (monitoring and improvement) (9/9)

After completion of the audit, evaluations are essential to detect potential for improvements. In addition to the auditing evaluation, in which the auditing program is checked for its effectiveness, a performance evaluation of individual auditors and the auditing team should be carried out in order to identify potential areas of optimization in the auditing process.

As such, the requisite questions post completion of the SCRM audit are:

Monitoring and Controls:

Documentation Have all documents required by the auditor been prepared or made available?
  Are the audited documents/evidence available in sufficient quantity?
  Has a comprehensive SCRM audit report, including improvement recommendations as well as a description of the current state, been prepared?

Filing

Were all important results of the SCRM audit secured in writing?
  Were all important results of the SCRM audit secured electronically?
Evaluation of the SCRM audit program
Was the number of sites to be audited appropriate?
  Was the selection of staff for the face-to-face interviews appropriate?
  Was the number of interviews conducted adequate?
  Were the appropriate SCRM auditing methods selected?
  Were the performances of the auditor and SCRM audit teams evaluated?

Improvements:

Improvement Measures Does the final audit report contain a satisfactory number of quality suggestions for SCRM improvements?
  Have milestones for concrete SCRM improvement measures been set?
  Have the key implementation responsibilities of these concrete improvement measures been defined and assigned?
  Have the key responsibilities for the monitoring and maintenance of these implemented improvements been defined?

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editor: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 16/16 Measures and Best Practices on “Risk Reporting and Reporting”

“This reporting is a single component of the existing quarterly reports.” (Interview – Corporate Risk Manager, pharmaceutical industry)

Documentation is another success factor for SCRM. As such, risk reports and reporting have a significant importance.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Ensure reporting at regular intervals.
  • Define the future recipients as well as the scope of the reporting. In addition to mid-level management, the risk report should also be sent to all relevant department heads who are involved in SCRM.
  •  
  • Define a process for distributing interim reports: for example, which SCRM measures should be taken for unforeseen supply chain risks that are characterized by a high degree of potential damage.
  • To a large extent try to automate data aggregation for reporting.
  • If possible, integrate reporting into the existing reporting system (e.g., quarterly reports).
  • The report should include illustrations, brief explanations, and recommendations for action.
  • In addition to the development of the key risk figures, include recommendations for action together with a trend analysis in the report.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editors: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 15/16 Measures and Best Practices for “Communication”

“The reporters stood outside our doors with microphones and cameras. By this point we had learned, to a certain extent, how to handle this internally–by having everyone “Please keep their mouths shut”. […] What if, for example, one of the very top corporate officers dies in a plane crash? Such an event is very specifically regulated here.” (Interview – Managing Director Food and Retail)

The design of communication is another factor in the success of SCRM. In addition to risk reports and reporting, associated internal and external communication can also influence the success of SCRM.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Define procedures for the frequency and scope of SCRM-related communication. 
  • Formally establish meeting minutes to record relevant details.
  • Ensure that employees are largely aware of the internal communication process.
  • Outline the expectations of internal communication within the department and link this with aspects of the internal reporting process.
  • Ensure that the communication process is both bottom-up and top-down.
  • Use a risk management information system to facilitate communication as well as the documentation of SCRM.
  • In addition to internal communication, also formally regulate the process of external communication (for example, with supply chain partners, authorities, etc.) and ensure that this system is understood by all relevant employees.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

 

MBP 14/16 Measures and best practices on “Documentation of Supply Chain Risks and the Measures Taken”

“Getting documentation signed creates a bond.” (Interview – Head of Risk Management, Wind Energy Industry)

Documentation is another success factor for SCRM. This involves documenting the supply chain risks (for example, using key figures) associated with these SCRM measures which have been taken.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • In the event of a supply chain interruption, keep a detailed report of what happens and analyze it to find the sources of the interruption–possibly with the aide of an FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)
  • Ensure a cohesive/consistent story for relevant control data.
  • The documentation of supply chain risks and the SCRM measures taken should be well-structured (definition of content, data origin, frequency, responsibilities, and so on).
  • Ensure that the documentation of the SCRM measures is audit-compliant (i.e., permission to document rights are established, changes are traceable, etc.).
  • The documentation should be created using a special software solution that is linked to all relevant systems in the company (information systems for supply chain risk management, ERP, etc.).

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editor: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 13/16 Measures and best practices on “control measures“

“In risk management, one important aspect is to visit the supplier on-site. […] No one generally offers to tell you when something goes wrong. If someone has relocated production to manufacture in a backyard in the Czech Republic in order to save a lot of money—unless you look very closely at what he’s doing–the details of the operation will never come out. If something is noticed, the supplier will simply apologize afterwards, and say: “Oh, I forgot. I will correct that, of course; I am sorry”. In this case you will have to find an economically responsible solution. You cannot simply ask for their core criteria metrics in this situation, as the results of these will not be reliable.” (Interview – Senior Director Supply Chain Management, Engineering)

Finally, risk control is performed as part of the risk management process. During this process it is checked whether the measures taken prove to be efficient.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Introduce a structured control process for the SCRM measures taken and for the changes in the supply chain risks.
  • Introduce as many controls as possible, such as physical controls, manual controls, and automated controls.
  • Ensure a cohesive/consistent story for relevant control data.
  • Remember that regular supplier audits require the maintenance of a supplier database to track results and risk scores over time.
  • Use existing metrics, like those from the Balanced Scorecard, and interpret them against the background of SCRM.
  • Integrate aspects of SCRM into your controlling systems, for example, into the Balanced Scorecard.
  • Introduce risk-oriented measures (for example, costs for rework, costs for contractual penalties, number of complaints, missing parts, number of process errors, warehouse/transport damage, number of unplanned/uncoordinated measures, and so on).
  • Perform an SCRM audit at regular intervals to identify weaknesses and potential for optimization.
  • Develop or implement existing systems to perform predictive analyses.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editors: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 12/16 Measures and Best Practices on “Managing Emergencies”

“There’s a crisis team that would meet when a depot burns down. These exist in every location, all those involved come together; everyone has a defined role. There are also regular training sessions for emergency plan practicing.” (Interview – Head of Additive Manufacturing Solutions, Aviation Industry)

In addition to being proactive, all SCRM emergency approaches should be well-structured, seeking to minimize the overall duration of supply chain interruptions as much as possible. 

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Demand a detailed Business Continuity Plan from your suppliers, outlining management capacities and concrete options for action in the event of supply chain risks occurring.
  • Make the preparation of a business continuity plan an evaluation criterion when you award a bid.
  • Ask your suppliers to provide timely information and an overview of material flows, which can be shared electronically with the company.
  • Provide regular training on emergency handling.
  • For emergencies, form a crisis team with defined roles that meets regularly for practice purposes. Various scenarios should be simulated.
  • Create information and action sequences for the various emergency scenarios (e.g. press releases, measures for restarting production, etc.).
  • In addition to representatives of the company, involve external stakeholders in the emergency team (e.g. suppliers, system suppliers, etc.).

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editor: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 11/16 Measures and best practices on “Triggering SCRM measures“

“What generally reinforces the importance of SCRM is an unfortunate natural phenomenon. After which you can see SCRM movement in the industry again. As soon as the negative consequences set in, the employees suddenly become more aware of the importance SCRM” (Interview – Supply Chain Manager, Handel)

Once the risk assessment has been completed, strategies and measures for dealing with the identified risks are analyzed, assessed, and defined as part of the risk treatment process (Kersten et al. 2012, p. 295). In doing so, the avoidance and reduction of risks via cause-related and effect-related measures can be targeted and the resulting limitation strategies distributed (Pfohl et al. 2008a, p. 65f).

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Develop structured guidelines and compare them with previously defined criteria (e.g. extent of damage, influence-ability, duration of the measure, etc.) in order to make decisions regarding the implementation of SCRM measures.
  • Identify reactive and proactive SCRM measures (for example, avoid single sourcing and develop alternative suppliers)
  • In addition to cause-related control measures, try to initiate effect-related measures.
  • Consistently follow-up on and document the measures taken (in-line with individual business judgment).
  • Carry out a cost-benefit analysis or a before/after evaluation to assess the SCRM measures taken.  

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editor: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 9/16 Measures and Best Practices on “Supply Chain Risk Identification”

“Of the many risks, the top five will be discussed again together in a meeting.” (Interview – Head of Additive Manufacturing Solutions, aerospace industry) 

In the course of the risk identification process, significant risks to the company are systematically recorded. Only those risks that are identified here can be assessed and managed in the following. The risk identification phase is, therefore, often regarded as particularly significant as it has a direct impact on the effectiveness of the entire process (Kersten et al. 2012, p. 293). 

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Identify the operational and strategic supply chain risks at regular intervals.
  • Also, try to proactively identify risks.
  • Categorize your identified risks: e.g. in procurement, process, control, demand, and environmental risks.
  • Try to use analytical methods, such as FMEA and morphological, as well as the standard creativity methods like brainstorming and free-writing to identify supply chain risks.
  • Ensure that the process of supply chain risk identification can be adapted to quickly changing risk situations by developing a versatile risk catalogue appropriately and maintaining easily adaptable surveys.
  • Ensure that the identified supply chain risks are up-to-date.
  • Ensure that the identified supply chain risks are complete (especially via the principle of dual control and with the involvement of a control authority)
  • Discuss the identified supply chain risks and possible consequences not only within departments but also across departments.  
  • Ensure that an overview of the most critical supply chain risks is available on an ad-hoc basis.  
  • When appropriate, you should include supply chain partners in the risk identification process.
  • Where possible, also use external data to identify supply chain risks.
  • Perform supply chain risk identification at regular intervals and which are formulated independently of previous results (start from zero).
  • If possible, use key-figure, extrapolation-oriented, and indicator-oriented early warning systems to identify supply chain risks well in advance.  

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 8/16 Measures and Best Practices for “Visualization of the Supply Chain”

“As far as the upstream supplier is concerned, you (the buyer) have the most detailed information as to whether and when he can deliver something or not. However, there’s generally not much more information available about the inner-workings of the supply chain. In most cases, however, the supplier has also been given so much responsibility that he becomes jointly responsible for the upstream-supplier. (Interview – Project Manager, Automotive Industry) 

An important prerequisite for successful SCRM is transparency. This should also be accompanied by a visual graphic of the supply chain.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Ensure horizontal as well as vertical data exchange within the company.
  • Compile detailed information about the geographical location of the production facilities of your direct suppliers (downstream, tier-1).
  • Identify the most important performance nodes (critical suppliers / critical nexus partners) in the supply chain.
  • Ensure that you can estimate the possible consequences of a supply chain interruption by direct suppliers (tier-1) by appropriate leveraging data analysis.
  • Compile detailed information (about geographical locations, etc.) about your direct customers.
  • Ensure that you can estimate the possible consequences of a supply chain interruption for the direct customer by using the appropriate data (from the down- and upstream views).
  • Compile detailed information about the geographical location of the production facilities of your direct suppliers (downstream, tier 1) and their upstream suppliers (downstream, tier 1 + 2).
  • Analyze the data to ensure that you can estimate the possible consequences to the company from a supply chain interruption to upstream suppliers (tier 2).
  • Identify possible logistical inter-dependencies amongst your upstream suppliers (for example, different system suppliers use the same upstream supplier).
  • Employing a software solution, there should be near complete transparency over the supply chain (end-to-end view). Ensure a system-wide visualization of the supply chain by creating a data model which periodically generates snapshots of real-time demand levels, inventories, and remaining available capacities at each significant supply chain node. At the push of a button, it should be possible to display and monitor the riskiest supply chain concerns. The collection and aggregation of all relevant information should be done in ONE system.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 7/16 Measures and Best Practices for “Supplier Information“

“Nobody gives out company data to the outside world as publicly as either employees associated with a production facility that was closed down or a new one that was set up, or as a new customer, who is not doing well. […] This is information that you get […] on the sidelines. […] this important information must be considered.” (Interview – Senior Director Supply Chain Management, Engineering)

An important prerequisite for successful SCRM is transparency. This should relate to both the value-creation processes themselves as well as the inclusion of comprehensive information about suppliers or customers and a visualization of the supply chain.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Regularly assess your suppliers’ possible risks using self-assessment templates or internally developed scoring procedures.
  • Conduct telephone conferences with critical suppliers at least once a week to identify problems which could lead to an interruption in daily operations well in advance.
  • Compile important information about your suppliers into a collective summary (e.g. emergency numbers, decision-making powers, sales volume, delivery quality, etc.).
  • Carry out supplier evaluations at regular intervals.
  • Carry out a supplier audit at regular intervals to identify possible weaknesses in your delivery dates that could lead to a supply chain interruption.
  • Gather information from different departments and aggregate and organize it in a way to increase the quantity and quality of the information.
  • Ensure that the information is accessible to the relevant employees from different departments (for example, Purchasing and Logistics).
  • Check whether you can also access external sources of information (with up-to-date and reliable details) when reviewing vendors (for example, Dun&Bradstreet).  
  • In addition to vendor evaluations, you should–where appropriate–perform a structured vendor management review in which you work with the vendor to identify development potential and improve growth capabilities.
  • Make sure that all contracts with your supply chain partners are up-to-date (for example, pricing details and the obligations of the supplier to inform you of major changes, such as the relocation of the production site, sustainability requirements, working conditions, etc.).
  • In addition to suppliers of production materials, you should also include other suppliers or service providers (e.g. IT service providers) in the information list.
  • Search for development potential together with the supplier. A Win-Win situation promotes motivation and increases both parties’ commitment.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 6/16 Measures and Best Practices for “Transparency in the Value-Creation Processes”

“…transparency, that’s the key.” (Interview 11 – Director Risk Management, Logistics Services)

An important prerequisite for successful SCRM is transparency. This should relate to both the value-added processes themselves as well as the inclusion of comprehensive information about suppliers or customers and a visualization of the supply chain.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified:

  • Create transparency in your value-creation processes. Who is involved and responsible? How do the processes work? What are critical process stages?
  • Try to understand the possible consequences of supply chain risks that could occur, and attribute them to the appropriate department.
  • In addition to the company’s internal value-creation processes, the process flows of the most important supply chain partners should be well understood. Therefore, try to estimate the consequences of a supply chain interruption.
  • Try to keep the value-creation processes in the company transparent enough to allow costs to be appropriately allocated to their source.  
  • Visualize the most important value-creation processes with the help of appropriate software–e.g. process modeling with ARIS.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editor: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 5/16 Measures and Best Practices for “SCRM Awareness and Culture“

“The issue should be brought to the attention of decision-makers–not only in the short term, but also in the medium and long term.” (Interview – Director Risk Management, Logistics Service Provider)

A positive approach to SCRM requires management’s openness towards suggestions for managing reported supply chain risks in a manner in which employees can see the value that’s being added. This form of a lived risk management culture is also accompanied by an awareness of supply chain risks among employees.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified: 

  • Establish a risk-conscious corporate culture which welcomes proactive measures to reduce supply chain risks (e.g. by regularly addressing supply chain risks and their consequences, by procedures or behavioral instructions, or by visual aides like photos, diagrams, or hidden objects.
  • Reinforce a pro-SCRM culture that pursues novel SCRM strategies. To this end, frequently highlight small successes or negative examples.
  • Ensure that sufficient human and financial resources are available to deal with SCRM and that the SCRM strategies are not perceived as additional workloads.
  • An important prerequisite for assuming responsibility for SCRM is above all an appropriate awareness of the risks involved. Ensure a relatively ubiquitous awareness-baseline by having upper management frequently address relevant topics, conducting trainings, distributing manuals and procedural or behavioral instructions, and offering visual aides in the form of photos, diagrams, etc.
  • Promote the regular exchange of SCRM-relevant information between the various departments (e.g. through monthly meetings).
  • Communicate the positive results achieved through the use of SCRM measures or the negative consequences of non-compliance.
  • The achievements of department managers and employees with regard to SCRM should be positively acknowledged, orally and/or in writing, by management.
  • Define and communicate thresholds, which should not be exceeded or undercut, in order to promote a common understanding of risks.
  • Where appropriate, try to integrate (as risk indicators) the risks which have been reported by individual employees over a long-term basis, and give the respective employee feedback to motivate them.
  •  Integrate aspects of SCRM as fixed components in the targets set for managerial teams. 
  • Try to extend the SCRM culture to your suppliers (e.g. regular supplier SCRM auditing).

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 4/16 Measures and Best Practices for “Employee skills and training”

“The fact is, a risk manager is not exactly at the top of the popularity scale. For most people, risk management is perceived as an “optional” or “cosmetic” issue.” (Interview – Managing Director, Trading)

Other factors contributing to the success of SCRM include sufficient professional competence of employees in dealing with SCRM as well as supplying the associated training opportunities: employees should be able to correctly analyze and evaluate supply chain risks. 

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified: 

  • Regularly train your employees on situational decision-making and supply chain interruption avoidance (when to report what and to whom).
  • Ensure access to SCRM documents that are used to train SCRM employees.
  • Train (internally or externally) your employees on a regular basis. Training courses should seek to implement new findings within SCRM, for example, elements of Big Data in SCRM or new requirements for SCRM in Industry 4.0.
  • Create an SCRM manual with the most relevant information, including threshold values of specific risk tolerance.
  • Create structured management processes to better handle supply chain-relevant information.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 3/16 Measures and best practices for “Integration into Existing Planning and Management Systems”

“[…] but how am I supposed to explain to a colleague in charge of R&D that he has to give me part of his budget so that I can take action to avoid a problem that doesn’t exist yet?“ (Interview – Operations Manager, medical device manufacturer)

SCRM is most efficiently implemented, if management is regularly involved and interested in the SCRM measures and seeks to integrate them into existing planning and management practices (particularly those which add direct corporate value, such as budget planning, quality management, production planning, etc.). Individual components of SCRM can be used as decision support tools.

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified: 

  • Develop an SCRM strategy: What are your core issues? What do you want to achieve? What supply chain risks can arise? Which projects should you tackle first? What financial, time, and human resources should you allocate to them?
  • Regularly align your business strategy with your SCRM strategy as changes in business strategies can also affect supply chains.
  • When formulating and designing an SCRM strategy, take into account the basic attitude of the company management towards supply chain risks (e.g. risk-averse or risk-taking).
  • Integrate aspects of SCRM into existing planning systems, such as budget planning and other management approaches (e.g. quality management and sustainability), and make sure to avoid duplicating tasks.
  • Take SCRM aspects into account in strategic decision-making.
  • Try to expand the collaborative approach of SCRM (e.g. through detailed supplier selection, joint supplier development, etc.).
  • In addition to SCRM risks, potential, associated opportunities should also be considered (opportunity management).

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Series-Editor: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

MBP 2/16 Measures and Best Practices for “Involving and Persuading the various Management Tiers”

“A decisive factor is the mindset of the executives. They must be open to the subject.” (Interview – Head of Logistics, Food Industry)

The SCRM owners can come from different hierarchical levels. The greater the involvement of higher and top level management in the SCRM, the greater the importance that will be ascribed to the topic within the company. 

In the numerous expert interviews and focus groups with company representatives and scientists for the development of the maturation model, the following measures were identified: 

  • Try to make the SCRM visible in the organizational structure–for example, create employee requirements or integrate the SCRM practices directly and openly into operations.
  • Supply chain risk information should be included in senior management decisions. To do this, ensure a consistent relay of information.
  • Promote risk awareness among management and employees by regularly highlighting positive successes and negative consequences.
  • Proactive supply chain risk measures should be rewarded. Create incentives to proactively take supply chain risk measures.
  • Try to involve management in SCRM as much as possible (e.g. participation in interdepartmental meetings, regular provision of information, distribution of status quo reports, etc).
  • Create binding guidelines or procedural instructions to increase the commitment of handling SCRM and ensure that these are adhered to. Make sure that management is strongly involved in this process.
  • Ensure that SCRM is a regular component of those meetings (planning meetings, strategy meetings, etc.) which involve management; otherwise, ensure management is informed about the respective details discussed therein. Ideally, the entire management team should come to support SCRM. Extensive financial investments should be made to the SCRM framework.
  • Ensure that significant investments are made in the SCRM.

Extract from Schröder, M. (2019): Structured improvement of supply chain risk management. In: Supply Chain Management – Contributions to Procurement and Logistics, Reihen-Hrsg.: Essig, M.; Stölzle, W., Kersten, W., Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden

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